List of important Emergency Medicine Mnemonics

Emergency Medicine mnemonics for easy memorization of forgetful stuff. They are specially helpful for USMLE and other licensing exams. This is ever growing dynamic list of mnemonics, please add yours comments to them.

Acute LVF management Mnemonic

LMNOP:[4]

  • Lasix (furosemide)
  • Morphine (diamorphine)
  • Nitrates
  • Oxygen (sit patient up)
  • Pulmonary ventilation (if doing badly)

Atrial fibrillation: causes of new onset Mnemonic

THE ATRIAL FIBS:[4]

  • Thyroid

  • Hypothermia

  • Embolism (P.E.)

  • Alcohol

  • Trauma (cardiac contusion)

  • Recent surgery (post CABG)

  • Ischemia

  • Atrial enlargement

  • Lone or idiopathic

  • Fever, anemia, high-output states

  • Infarct

  • Bad valves (mitral stenosis)

  • Stimulants (cocaine, theo, amphet, caffeine)

Well’s criteria Mnemonic

Secret little TIP (about) blood clots:[4]

Signs/symptoms of PE (3)

PE is the most likely diagnosis (3)

Tachycardia >100bpm (1.5)

Imobilisation/surgery in the last 4 weeks (1.5)

Previous DVT/PE

Blood in sputum (haemoptysis) (1)

Active cancer (1)

Two tier score: PE likely > 4

Causes of life-threatening chest pain Mnemonic

PET-MAC[5]

  • P = Pulmonary embolism
  • E = Esophageal rupture
  • T = Tension pneumothorax
  • M = Myocardial infarction
  • A = Aortic dissection
  • C = Cardiac tamponade

Ipecac: contraindications Mnemonic

4 C’s:[4]

  • Comatose
  • Convulsing
  • Corrosive
  • hydrocarbon

JVP: raised JVP differential Mnemonic

PQRST(EKG waves):

  • Pericardial effusion
  • Quantity of fluid raised (fluid over load)
  • Right heart failure
  • Superior vena caval obstruction
  • Tricuspid stenosis/tricuspid regurgitation/tamponade (cardiac)

MI: immediate treatment Mnemonic

DOGASH:[4]

  • Diamorphine
  • Oxygen
  • GTN spray
  • Aspirin 300 mg
  • Streptokinase
  • Heparin

PEA/asystole (ACLS): cause Mnemonic

ITCHPAD[4]

Infarction

Tension pneumothorax

Cardiac tamponade

Hypovolemia/hypothermia/hypo-,hyperkalemia/hypomagnesmia/hypoxemia

Pulmonary embolism

Acidosis

Drug overdose

Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) Mnemonic

SOAP ME

Suction

Oxygen

Airway equipment

Positioning

Monitoring & medications

EtCO2 & other equipment[7]

Rapid sequence intubation medications (RSI) (CCRx)

Very calmly engage the respiratory system

Vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg[8]

Cisatracurium 0.2 mg/kg[8]

Etomidate 0.3 mg/kg[8]

Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg-1.2 mg/kg[8]

Succinylcholine 1 mg/kg[8]

Shock: signs and symptoms

TV SPARC CUBE:[4]

Thirst

Vomitting

Sweating

Pulse weak

Anxious

Respirations shallow/rapid

Cool

Cyanotic

Unconscious

BP low

Eyes blank

Shock: types Mnemonic

RN CHAMPS (Alternatively: “MR. C.H. SNAP”, or “NH CRAMPS”):

Respiratory

Neurogenic

Cardiogenic

Hemorrhagic

Anaphylactic

Metabolic

Psychogenic

Septic[9]

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes Mnemonic

BATS:[4]

Berry aneurysm

Arteriovenous malformation/adult polycystic kidney disease

Trauma

Stroke

Syncope causes, by system Mnemonic

HEAD HEART VESSELS:[4]

CNS causes include HEAD:

Hypoxia/hypoglycemia

Epilepsy

Anxiety

Dysfunctional brain stem (basivertebral TIA)

Cardiac causes are HEART:

Heart attack

Embolism (PE)

Aortic obstruction (IHSS, AS or myxoma)

Rhythm disturbance, ventricular

Tachycardia

Vascular causes are VESSELS:

Vasovagal

Ectopic (reminds one of hypovolemia)

Situational

Subclavian steal

ENT (glossopharyngeal neuralgia)

Low systemic vascular resistance (Addison’s, diabetic vascular neuropathy)

Sensitive carotid sinus

Tension pneumothorax: signs and symptoms Mnemonic

P-THORAX[10]

Pleuritic pain

Tracheal deviation

Hyperresonance

Onset sudden

Reduced breath sounds (and dyspnea)

Absent fremitus

X-ray shows collapse

Ventricular fibrillation: treatment Mnemonic

Shock, shock, shock, everybody shock, little shock, big shock, momma shock, poppa shock:[4]

Shock= Defibrillate

Everybody= Epinephrine

Little= Lidocaine

Big= Bretylium

Momma= MgSO4

Poppa= Pocainamide